In the month of Ramadân, while one knows that one is fasting and while one has intended before the dawning of the previous fajr for the fast, eating or drinking something alimentary, that is, putting some nutritious, medicinal, narcotic or intoxicant substance into the stomach through the mouth, or having or being made to have sexual intercourse breaks the fast and necessitates qadâ and kaffârat. According to this definition, smoking breaks the fast and necessitates both qadâ and kaffârat. For, the solid and liquid motes in the smoke go into the stomach together with the saliva. After such things as cupping and backbiting, which are certainly known not to break the fast, if one eats something consciously because one thinks that one’s fast has already been broken, one’s fast will be broken this time and qadâ and kaffârat will be necessary. If a person who has not made his niyya before dawn in Ramadân does something to break his fast before dahwa, both qadâ and kaffârat are necessary according to the two imâms. For, he missed the opportunity to make niyya and fast while it was possible for him to do so. But according to Imâm-ia’zam only qadâ is necessary. If that person eats and drinks after the dahwa time, kaffârat is not necessary according to all three imâms. The penalty of kaffârat is the recompense for desecrating the honour and dignity of the blessed month of Ramadân. It is the punishment for intentionally breaking the fast of Ramadân which is  Kaffâra for the voluntarily broken fast will be explained a few pages ahead.
sahîh according to all four Madhâhib. For this reason, it being compulsory to make the niyya before dawn in the Shafi’î Madhhab, if a person in the Hanafî Madhhab purposely breaks during the day the fast for which he did not make niyya before dawn, or if he is forced to break it or has to break it because of a good excuse, he does not make kaffârat. When one breaks one’s fast of qadâ or vowed fast or supererogatory fast, one does not make kaffârat. If a person who did something that necessitates only qadâ on one day of Ramadân does the same thing purposely on another day, it is necessary for him to make kaffârat, too. If one breaks it by mistake, for example, if some water escapes down one’s throat while making an ablution, if one is forced to break it, if one administers an enema, if one sniffs up fluid medicine, lotion, smoke, [the smoke of a cigarette smoked by someone else], or the smoke of aloes wood fumigated with amber, into one’s nose or drops medicine into one’s ear, if the medicine put on the boil on one’s skin penetrates in, [if one injects medicine by syringe], if one swallows something not medicinal or nutritious, such as a piece of paper, stone, or metal, cotton or a seed of uncooked rice, millets or lentils, if one vomits a mouthful by forcing oneself to, if one with a bleeding tooth swallows only the blood or the blood which is fifty per cent mixed with saliva, if one eats not knowing that the dawn has broken or breaks the fast thinking that the sun has set, if one goes on eating thinking that one’s fast is broken because one has forgotten one’s fast and begun eating, if they pour water into one’s mouth or have sexual intercourse with one while one is asleep, if one fasts without intending or does not intend before dawn in Ramadân and then gives up the fast after dahwa though one intended after dawn; the fast is broken in any of these cases and it is necessary to make only a day-for-day qadâ after the ’Iyd. Yet kaffârat is not necessary. If rain or snow goes down one’s throat it breaks both the fast and the namâz. It is necessary to make qadâ. If one becomes junub by embracing, hugging and kissing, one’s fast breaks and qadâ becomes necessary. But it does not break if one does not become junub. It is stated by the authors ‘rahmatullâhi ’alaihim ajma’în’ of the books Hindiyya, Bahr, and Durr-ulMukhtâr that only qadâ is necessary when one becomes junub by manual masturbation. If one swallows something that has remained between one’s teeth from the previous night, it breaks the fast if it is bigger than a chick-pea and qadâ becomes necessary. But it does not break the fast if it is smaller than a chick-pea. If a person who – 62 –  Madhâhib is the plural form of Madhhab. has forgotten his fast and eaten something eats or drinks something again after remembering that he is fasting though he knows that forgetting and eating will not break his fast, his fast breaks and it becomes necessary to make both qadâ and kaffârat. It is written in Multaqâ and in all other books that, “If the medicine put on a boil on one’s head or body penetrates into one’s brain or alimentary canal, one’s fast breaks and only qadâ becomes necessary.” It is written in the commentary to Multaqâ: “Imâm-ia’zam says that a fast breaks when food penetrates through a boil. But the two imâms say that it does not break because the fast breaks only when food goes in through the natural holes of one’s body.” Tahtâwî explains this very well in his annotation to Marâq-il-falâh. He says: “If it is known that the liquid or solid medicine put on the boil on one’s head or body has penetrated into one’s brain or alimentary canal, one’s fast breaks. If it is not known well that it has penetrated in, if the medicine is liquid one’s fast breaks according to Imâm-i-a’zam. But the two imâms said that it does not break if it is not known for certain that the medicine has penetrated in. All three imâms agreed that the fast would not break if the medicine which was not known for certain to have penetrated in was solid.” Hence, all three imâms agree on that the fast breaks when it is known for certain that the medicine has penetrated in, whether it is liquid or solid. This comes to mean that any inoculation or medical injection done with a syringe under the skin or in the muscles of one’s arms, legs or any other part breaks the fast.
Endless Bliss Page (61_63)