Prof.Lewis Madison Terman was an American psychologist, noted as a pioneer in educational psychology in the early 20th century at the Stanford University School of Education. He is best known as the inventor of the Stanford-Binet IQ test and the initiator of the longitudinal study of children with high IQs called the Genetic Studies of Genius.He served as president of the American Psychological Association.
Alfred Binet (1857-1911) was a French psychologist who was first interested in the study of thinking and mental processes. The intelligence quotient (IQ) is the measure of intelligence as based on intelligence tests and the intelligence of the general population. While Binet created and published the very first standardized test of human intelligence (which was revised several times), it was American psychology professor Lewis Terman, of Stanford University, who came up with the actual formula for determining IQ: divide the test taker’s “mental age,” which is revealed by his or her score on the intelligence test, by his or her chronological age. The resulting number is what Terman called the intelligence quotient or IQ. In 1916 Terman brought the existing Binet test from France to the United States, translated it into English, and developed a new set of standard questions for American children. He named the new test Stanford-Binet.
In terms of how intelligent the general population is, the average IQ is 100, with 68.3 percent of people possessing IQs ranging between 85 and 115. People with IQs between 115 and 130 are classified as having superior IQs while those with IQs in excess of 130 are labeled as gifted. Those individuals whose IQ falls below 85 are labeled as borderline and any score under 70 often indicates that an individual is mentally impaired to some degree.
Human beings possess varying degrees of intelligence. The highest degree of intelligence is called genius. Intelligence is measured by testing. Psychologist American Prof. Terman says that historically the measurement of intelligence through tests was first performed by Ottoman Turks.
Ottoman armies were moving through Europe, conquering one country after another. They were at the doorsteps of Vienna. They knew that if they conquered Vienna, it would be easy to conquer the rest of Europe. The Ottomans were bringing Islamic civilization to Europe. Lights of knowledge, learning, and ethics were illuminating the countries that had been darkened by Christianity, and were spreading vitality, humanity, peace, and happiness. For centuries, Europeans had been enslaved by dictators, capitalists, and clergy and had become barbarians. With the introduction of Islamic justice, knowledge, and ethics, Europeans were being liberated and enjoying human rights. But, the dictators and especially the Christian clergy were putting their last efforts against the Ottoman armies. One night, Great Britain’s chancellor in Istanbul sent his historic letter to London. In his letter he wrote: Eureka!…Eureka!..! I have discovered the reason for the success of the Ottoman armies. I have found the way to stop the advancement of their armies. He also wrote as follows:
“Ottomans in conquered lands, without regard to nationality or religion, are testing the intelligence of the chosen children and selecting those possessing high IQs and educating them at schools [madrasas] in accordance with the Islamic ethics. They are further selecting the brightest among the students of these schools [madrasas] and educating them in the highest sciences and arts of their times at the “ANDARUN” college, which is a special school at the residence of the sultan. Military leaders are all graduates of this special school and all possess high intelligence. Those bright and successful prime-ministers, Sokullus and Koprulus have been educated in this manner. The only way to stop the advancement of the Ottoman armies and to save Christianity is to undermine and degenerate the quality of education at these special schools by working secretly behind the scenes.”
After this letter the British established a new Ministry of State for the Colonial Department. The spies which were trained in this department and Christian missionaries and freemasons concentrated their efforts to suborn some personnel by lies, deceit, and promises of a prosperous life in the Ottoman State. They used their influences on higher authorities so that these mercenaries be appointed to effective and key administrative positions. Through these wretched puppets they tried to abolish and remove some of the most critical and important courses like sciences, ethics and advanced religious knowledge in these schools so that the graduates of these schools would lack the necessary knowledge to manage government administration successfully. They accomplished their purpose after the political reforms effected in 1839. As a result, the Islamic state was destroyed and the lights of happiness and peace radiated by Islam were extinguished.
Ref: This paragraphes are quoted from the book “Ethics of Islam” page 216, which is the translation of the book İslâm Ahlâkı written by Hüseyn Hilmi Işık ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ,’ who passed away in 1422 A.H (2011 A.D.) in Istanbul / Turkey. “İslâm Ahlâkı” and “Ethics of Islam” published by Hakikat Kitabevi, Istanbul. You can find the whole book and the other valuable books in the web site www.hakikatkitabevi.com.tr and download in PDF format for Adobe Acrobat Reader, EPUB format for iPhone-iPad-Mac devices and MOBI format for Amazon Kindle device.