— In Ramadân-isherîf or while fasting for qadâ or kaffârat or while performing vowed or supererogatory fast, if one forgets that one is fasting and eats, drinks, or has sexual intercourse, or has a nocturnal emission while asleep or emits semen involuntarily by looking [at something sexy] while awake, if one applies tincture of iodine or some ointment or kohl [even if their tint or smell is noticed in one’s saliva or urine], or if one kisses lustfully, backbites, applies cupping, vomits a mouthful involuntarily or vomits a little voluntarily, or if water goes into one’s ear or dust, smoke or a fly goes into one’s throat through one’s mouth or nose involuntarily, [or if one is given artificial air with an oxygen tube, or if one cannot prevent the smoke of others’ cigarettes from going into one’s mouth and nose], or if after rinsing one’s mouth one swallows the wetness remaining in one’s mouth together with one’s saliva, or if one puts some medicine in one’s eye or tooth cavity even if one feels its taste in one’s throat; the fast does not break in any of these cases.
[The author of the book Bahr-ur râiq, ‘rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaih’ says: “In some cases the mouth is thought of as an internal part of the body. Hence, if a fasting person swallows his saliva, his fast will not break. It is like something dirty inside the body passing from stomach to intestines. Bleeding from an injury in the mouth, from taking a tooth out, or at the point where an injection was made, or blood coming from the stomach to the mouth doesn’t break a fast or an ablution. When one spits out or swallows this blood, if the saliva is greater than the blood, that is, if it is yellow in colour, they are still not broken. It is the same when other things come to the mouth from the stomach, in which case neither the ablution nor the fast is broken. If a mouthful (comes to the mouth and) goes out of the mouth, both are broken. The inside of the mouth is sometimes considered to be an outer part of the body. The fast is not broken when water is taken into the mouth.” The same is noted in Jawhara-t-un-neyyira, too. Hence, it is seen that, when a tooth is extracted, if there is much bleeding, the fast is not broken when one spits it out. When one is not fasting, one’s ablution is not broken when one swallows it. Neither of the two is broken in any case if the blood is less than the amount of saliva. It is stated in Fatâwâ-yi-Hindiyya: “Administering clyster (enema) or dropping medicine into the ear-hole will break one’s fast, yet it will not necessitate kaffârat. Injecting water or oil into the penis will not break one’s fast even if the liquid reaches the bladder. However, liquid injected into the female pudendum will break a woman’s fast. Inserting one’s wet or ointed finger into one’s rectum or vagina will break one’s fast. A dry finger (inserted into the rectum or vagina) will not break it. Water which one inadvertently lets go into one’s rectum when cleaning oneself after defecation will break one’s fast.”] Such acts as tasting the food (while preparing it) without swallowing it, chewing gum-mastic, hugging and kissing despite the danger of becoming junub, having a bath for refreshment will not break one’s fast, yet they are tanzîhî makrûh. Applying kohl (on
 Acts which our Prophet ‘sall-Allâhu ’alaihi wasallam’ disliked, abstained from or dissuaded from are called makrûh. These acts are not clearly prohibited in the Qur’ân al-kerîm. However, The Messenger of Allah avoided some of them more strictly than he did the others. The scholars of Ahl as-sunna — may Allâhu ta’âlâ reward those great people plentifully — separated these acts from the others and termed them ‘tahrîmî’ on account of the danger that these acts may be harâm. And they termed the other acts of makrûh ‘tanzîhî’. one’s eyes) or cosmetics on one’s moustache, smelling flowers, musks or lotions will not break one’s fast; nor are they makrûh. Things such as kohl (on the eyes) and cosmetics (on one’s moustache) are makrûh when they are intended for ornamentation; and so is the case with flowers attached to the collar or carried in one’s hand. Smelling dusty or smoky things or chewing artificial gums will break one’s fast. Using (the stick toothbrush called) miswâk or cupping or bleeding are not makrûh. It is mustahab to have the sahûr late and to make haste for the iftâr. Ibni ’Âbidîn says: “This commendation is intended to secure the iftâr against being delayed until the stars are seen. In cloudy weather, even if the adhân is called and the gun is fired, one should not break fast until one is certain that the sun has set.” It is commanded in the 187th âyat of the Sûra Baqara that fasting starts as fair-sâdiq breaks. This is a command of Allah and cannot be changed. An invalid person does not fast if his illness will become worse; a pregnant woman, a woman with a suckling and a soldier in warfare do not fast when they are weak. They make qadâ of fast when they recover. A worker who knows that he will become ill as he works to make his living is not permitted to break his fast before getting ill. A person who sets out with the intention of going three-days’ way [104 kilometres], becomes a musâfir. The musâfir may break his fast the following day, and makes qadâ after Ramadân; yet he had better fast if it will not harm him. No need of kaffârat for breaking the fast during the journey or in places where one intends to stay less than fifteen days. When his journey is over and he comes back home or when he decides to stay for fifteen days in the place he has gone to, he makes qadâ of the days he did not fast. People who are not ill and those who are not musâfirs must fast even if they are workers, soldiers or students. They will be gravely sinful if they do not fast. And they will have to make qadâ for it. If they break the fast although they have made niyya, they will have to make kaffârat, too. The author of Behjet-ul-fatâwâ, ‘rahmatullâhi ta’âlâ ’alaih’ says: “When Ramadân-i-sherîf coincides with one of the summer months a liar may masquerade as a man of religion and hinder youngsters, students, and workers from fasting by saying, ‘It is permissible for you not to make the niyya and not to fast now; you may make qadâ when the days are shorter during winter. If you eat and drink by not
 Faj-i-sâdiq is the time when the sun’s upper limb is 19° below the horizon. Please see the tenth chapter of the fourth fascicle of Endless Bliss. intending for the fast in Ramadân, kaffârat is not necessary.’ He will be punished severely. He will be prevented from saying so.” Ibni ’Âbidîn says: “If an ill person is seriously worried that his illness may become worse, or that his recovering may be slowed or he may have a severe pain, or if a hospital attendant fears that he himself may become ill (in case he fasts) and and thereby cause helâk to his patients, these people do not fast, and they make qadâ later. If a healthy person strongly believes that he would become ill, or a public servant who performs manual labor in adverse conditions, i.e. cleaning the river, worries about becoming seriously ill due to the effect of very hot or cold weather, which in turn causes helâk, or if a woman [who works to support herself and who lives alone and gets no financial support from anywhere] strongly believes that she would become ill if she fasted while performing strenuous physical labor, such as a laundry washing or housework, which, again, is a cause of helâk, it is permissible not to fast or to break the fast intended, and make qadâ for it. A strong belief means to notice the symptoms of death based on one’s own personal experience or the information given by a Muslim expert physician (Tabîb-i Muslim-i hâziq). Expert (hâziq) means specialist in a certain field of medicine. It is permissible to be examined and treated by a physician who is known as a kâfir (disbeliever) or as a person committing a grave sin or grave sins; but acts of worship should not be given up with their advice. Breaking your fast because they advise that you do so, entails kaffârat.” The author says under the topic of Ikrâh (duress) that to lose an organ or limb; to lose one’s entire property; to suffer a violent or torturous imprisonment; and battery; these things are all causes of helâk. It is written in the book Imâd-ul Islâm: “If one cannot find a Muslim expert physician and has no experience oneself one should first swallow a small curled up piece of paper or swallow an uncooked grain of rice without any water, then eat some food, and then take the medicine. This procedure will free one from kaffârat.” In the book Bahr-ur-râiq is written: “A person bitten by a venomous animal, breaks the fast in order to take an antidote and after Ramadân makes qadâ.” Ibni ’Âbidîn says at the end of his discourse on the acts that annul fast: “A person who needs a means of
 Please see the fourteenth chapter of the sixth fascicle of Endless Bliss for ‘Ikrâh’.  Lexical meaning of ‘helâk’ is ‘destruction’, ‘perishing’, ‘exhaustion’. In this register, it is used to mean ‘the measure of harm or danger which Islam has dictated as a gauge whereby to decide about the step to be taken’. subsistence and believes that he will possibly become ill if he works, breaks the fast. If he is an employee on a contractual basis and his employer does not grant him a leave of absence during the month of Ramadân, and yet if he and his family have the means of subsistence, he does not break the fast. For, begging is harâm for such a person. If he does not have his and his family’s means of subsistence, it is necessary for him to find an easier job that will not be hampered on account of his fasting. If he cannot find an easier job, it is permissible to break the fast and continue to work. Likewise, if the Ramadân fasting harms someone who mows the crop, i.e. if he will not be able to mow the crop and the crop will be destroyed or stolen because of fasting, [or if it is certain that the building will be destroyed by rain in case the construction cannot be finished in time], and if it is impossible to find someone to work for pay, it is permissible to break the fast and do the work. After finishing the work he fasts and makes qadâ, after Ramadân, of the days (he did not fast). It will not be a sin. Anyone who will certainly become ill or die from thirst (in case he goes on fasting) may break the fast, and makes qadâ. In this case he does not make kaffârat.”
Endless Bliss Page (63_67)